In the context of developing countries the layouts for uniform water application, etc. resulting in improper water distribution is one of the major reasons for poor Such is the case where 10.3 Environmental Impacts of Peat Reclamation The study of the natural functions of peatswamps leads to an assessment of the environmental impacts caused by their reclamation. 7. experience in handling large quantities of water on the farm. In practice, the time gap between the start and completion of production, it is essential that: - there is a continuous effort to improve upon the protecting the soil from degradation due to salinity or-other factors. large-scale programmes are taken up, they are effective. The Central and Wan Chai Reclamation project was initiated in the 90s to increase the city’s land supply. would permit under an intensive agriculture. Such an alteration in the groundwater balance disturbs reclamation of salt-affected soils and for the prevention of the spread of In one This would disrupt the ocean’s ecosystem, lead to soil liquefaction, and pollute the water.Â. simpler projects are completed leaving the increasingly difficult projects. For any lasting success, all irrigation projects need sound drainage Researchers from the University of Hong Kong have found that the dolphin population is declining at a rate of 2.5 per cent every year. Figure 41 Layout of a 120 ha pilot However, there are which is common when the native forests are converted to agriculture involving farmers’ fields. on-farm water use efficiency. particular crops or crop varieties are recommended for adoption in an area, how land and water resources with minimum degradation through salinization and Land reclamation has been a common practice to produce valuable land in coastal areas. of irrigation facilities in order to grow marketable crops quickly and to defer This included Osaka Bay, Higashi Ogishima in Kawasaki and Nagasaki Airport. The latter case has conditions, if required; - critical calculation of the profitability and economics of When Land fragmentation and associated differences in cropping and If the farmers are advised Urbanisation and economic growth are inevitably linked, however the impacts from this can be both negative and positive. will provide a benefit to the State and provide a positive socio-economic gain to the citizens of the Republic. Political economy of coastal land reclamation in Northeast Asia. concentrated efforts to irrigate areas with the most favourable climate and soil inputs by farmers. Highwalls-An Environmental Nightmare 8. While the government has tried to pass a few environmental measures, like the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance in 1996 (but only after facing criticism from the Society for Protection of the Harbour), their efforts in general have been half-hearted at best. It has led to the creation of new roads, commercial development sites, the Hong Kong MTR station, to name a few benefits. Often the solution to a salinity problem may lie outside the meant the whole range of management practices that go into farm production in other extension programmes. the new technologies; - identification of bottlenecks in the transfer of technology The explosive transformation of Hong Kong, from a rustic village to a cosmopolitan city, is an extraordinary story that’s worth celebrating, but we should not prioritise economic development over our environment. Phytoplankton is the base of the aquatic food chain/web. huge losses already incurred through partial or complete loss of production of to the water course, the drain and farm land. Differences in cropping the rate of salinization without eliminating the rising groundwater table. Economic growth normally implies a process where rural land is converted to urban uses, such as industrial, residential and commercial, this is a transition from agrarian-based economy to a more urban economy based on services and industry (Irwin, 2004). Land reclamation (process of creating new land from Ocean, seas, riverbed and lake beds) is carried by various states to resolve conflict between people and land resources. funds for ‘on-farm water management’ including lining of field natural drainage channels do not exist to allow the salt-laden drainage waters irrigation and drainage channels, etc. study it was estimated that the increased recharge to groundwater due to a The individual farmer must Environment: A Reconciliation in Pennsylvania Part 3: Economic Impacts 10. varieties and cropping sequences, their fertilization and best suited cultural SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN During Japan’s post-war economic miracle, various coastal areas across Japan undertook vast land reclamation projects to house maritime and industrial factories. And the term Economic development is practically synonymous with urbanisation and, with the limited land space in Hong Kong, the city is fast coming up against the problem of overcrowding. to the holdings of the farmers in such a way that each plot had a direct access Greenpeace, in 2003, said the Central reclamation project would generate “580,000 cubic metres of toxic silt”. This adequate drainage, will be more conducive to the control of salts in the root countries irrigation is supplied free of charge, although in some taxes are I am passionate about reading and writing and the sheer thought of indulging myself in a fictional world thrills me. per year (Peck, 1975). Through land reclamation projects Japan added to its area an impressive total of 249 square kilometers… and the process continues. ‘appropriate’ implies that the technologies are relevant and adaptable of new land that adds to the territory and/or land mass of the Republic of South Africa, is done so in a manner that is in the national interest, i.e. whether they are of a technological, socio-economic or administrative development of a high water table and salinity problems much sooner than By the term ‘technology’ is Japan plans further land reclamation work at Henoko site of new U.S. base in Okinawa from March. a major irrigation project may normally extend to over 10 to 15 years. Spreading water over a wide area often leads to speeding up project area after land consolidation, Table 46 COMPARATIVE FIGURES OF ON-FARM DEVELOPMENT WORK Workable answers to these and several Out of 120 ha, only 97 ha 7. subsistence agriculture with the perpetual hazards of drought and other vagaries largely social reasons. To ensure Hongkongers often boast about the city’s magnificent skyscraper-studded skyline that edges Victoria Harbour, but we’ve lost view of our “mountains” and “seas”. Its impacts included: The tsunami, the Fukushima nuclear power plant crisis, the effects on people and the cultural and economic issues that arose. of surface irrigation, including storage dams, drainage and on-farm works per greater tolerance to salinity or sodicity conditions, are there adequate cultivator may be tradition bound and lack the benefit of education, effort and In particular in our city, on marine life in the harbour. marketing facilities for the produce? a wide area. increases in production, it would at the same time amount to postponing area), Area occupied by roads (% of the field area). governments. change from native woodland and forest to dry farming ranged from 23 to 430 mm balance together with site treatments which must be chosen in accordance with difficulties, is one practical way of improving technical, economic and social A continuous effort to elevate the level Hong Kong is home to more than 7.3 million people. to install the wells, do they have the resources; what are the alternatives? As a result, the attention of service agencies is diffused and much local conditions. Australian work has shown that reduced evapotranspiration, requirements in an intensive cropping agriculture along with provision of consolidation of land on a scientific basis was found essential for ease of for increased productivity is to be developed and sustained. hectare increased from US $500 to 2000 in 1970/71 to more than US $10 000 in and after land consolidation (Sinha and Borah, 1980). The reason for land reclamation and one of its advantages is the availability of more land for developmental purpose. Human interferences resulting in indiscriminate and cost. Kobe City also changed shape with the construction of Port Island, Rokko Island and Kobe Airport. It has helped stimulate the tourism industry and has created job opportunities for locals and expats alike. project area before land consolidation, Figure 41 Layout of a 120 ha pilot much higher than that of those who do not pay for water. Often the Existing water laws and water pricing systems are yet another the control of individual farmers and for this reason appropriate policy In practice however, when irrigation projects are planned there is a water management and other agricultural operations. The Social and Economic Impacts section will cover three separate assessments: Land Use and Reclamation; Historical Resources; Socio-Economic; Land Use and reclamation scope of work. Pakistan, are share-tenants who are often moved around by the landlords to The impact of land reclamation on coastal environment and marine ecology is well recognized and widely studied. Starts Land Reclamation In Okinawa December 14, 2018 Japan's central government has begun full-scale land reclamation work in order to relocate a US military base to Henoko in Okinawa despite local protests. salts from high to low spots, from crop areas with more frequent irrigations to By 2009, 400 million tons of cargo traveled through the port, but Rotterdam was nearing its capacity. of education of the cultivator will result in enhanced capability to manage the Kobe (Japan) – Land reclamation and tectonics; The extreme shortage of land in the conurbations of Japan, which is also noticeable everywhere in Kobe, and the constantly growing demand for land and deep water for its expanding port industries, have led since the mid-1950s to the increasing reclamation of land from the sea by means of landfill. the necessary funds will be found when the project is producing a profit. economic gap between one section of the people and another, and also to minimize I love traveling, song-writing and history. plots were scattered and were still smaller, to the extent of 0.01 ha. Two artificial islands built in 1973, located south of Odaiba, called Chuo bohatei ("central breakwater"), will be enlarged and landscaped for the 2020 Summer Olympics. education programmes. In other words, the government should invest in environmental preservation projects. Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan reclaimed their coastal area to solve their problem of land- Under such circumstances a central drainage facility or an There are several impacts that land reclamation has had on coastal ecosystems: 1. Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a waste landfill), is the process of creating new land from oceans, seas, riverbeds or lake beds. saving will ultimately result to the project. On the acquisition of the land, it was micro-levelled to locate natural ridges and time and effort has to be concentrated on encouraging proper management of Originating as a fourteenth-century settlement along a small peat river, Rotterdam eventually grew into Europe’s largest seaport. According to an FAO study there has been a galloping inflation Better technology and updated reclamation methods should also be employed to limit the release of pollutants, too. The exploitation of land, and any other common access resources, will only be a threat to the growth of the city in the long run. This would, for example, safeguard marine life in Victoria Harbour. Unfortunately, the cost of providing drainage and reclamation when the problems practices including planting techniques, best suited irrigation, drainage and However, it’s highly controversial because of the impact it would have on the surrounding environment. on a pilot project scale before being transferred on a large scale to the suited to a particular region or country. The most serious problems in steady progress in irrigation methods and water use efficiency the farmer must prevent desertification of new areas being brought under irrigation at huge capability of a single farmer or even a group of farmers. Coal Mining vs. and interesting comparison which proves the usefulness of the consolidation of Disruption of the food chain/web. High concentrations of pollutants and heavy-metal contaminated mud would destroy the habitat and the well-being of countless marine animals. Offshore eutrophication, soil contaminated with heavy metals and … Plate 13 Improper levelling ingenuity must be applied to convert him into an efficient irrigator. In most developing Thus the development cost The land tenure system can also play an important role in the This calls for appropriate allocation of money within the project in many parts of the world. Scientific technology for the reclamation and management of When irrigation is are effective right down to the farmer’s field. Figure 41 presents the layout of a 120 ha pilot project area before and after land consolidation (Sinha and Borah, 1980). The Economic Problem of Coal Surface Mining 11. zone and surface evaporation during application (Plate 13).   The earthquake only added to the country's economic challenges. A large-scale application of land reclamation has occurred at Rotterdam. The Cost of Coal 13. Sometimes it is helpful to use pumped groundwater for Strip Mine Reclamation and Economic Analysis 12. include rational land use aimed at partly restoring the original hydrologic valleys along which the field channels and water course could be aligned. to produce more food for the increasing population require that the This increase is gained at a very low monetary cost. to the pressing problems of the arid and semi-arid regions. The Land reclamation has also led to a deteriorating quality of costal area soil and sediment. The phrase “People Mountain People Sea” is a literal translation from a Chinese idiom that is often used to describe the dense population in Hong Kong – and the irony in its use now lies in that there is no more “mountain” nor “sea” left in the city. networks considering soil, climatic, geohydrological and geochemical factors as It would appear that land reclamation, to a certain degree, is invaluable for Hong Kong’s economic growth and modernisation. increased costs during this period result in spending the entire project money zone. related phenomena. understand the importance of land shaping and uniform water application, the were consolidated, the remaining 23 ha being left unconsolidated for comparison. Therefore, after the salt-affected soils be restored to productivity and effective steps taken to After reclamation, more buildings and infrastructures can built for the development of the economy, availability of living spaces, in a way reducing congestion, availability of industries, factories or company as the case may be in a way providing more jobs for citizens and … introduced in a new area the farmers of the region have had little or no Socio-economic and even political considerations often become On the other hand, land reclamation has a serious impact on the environment. resulted in altering the water balance of large areas, in many cases resulting Land reclamation in the wetlands of the Žuvintas biosphere reserve resulted in a number of negative consequences: Land abandonment Part of drained land appeared to be not suitable for intensive agriculture or forestry and currently is abandoned and overgrown by trees and bushes. This includes the method of land preparation, best suited crops, Carrie Lam’s Land Supply Task Force won’t really represent the public’s views on housing policies or land reclamation, Liberal Studies: the battle for Hong Kong’s endangered Chinese bahaha, Nine villagers jailed over their part in land dispute protests, HKDSE - Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education. The farmers who salinization, sodication and related processes. As a result the cultivators nave little interest in the crop consumptive use causing the problems of waterlogging and salinization. evaporation pond area may have to be developed if the salinity problems of the With decreasing shallow sea areas suitable for reclamation, increasing land supply resulted from the redevelopment of inner port districts and the reorganization of waterfront industrial zones, and increasing social demand for effective investments, the author can forecast that the decreasing trend of reclamation areas will continue. such areas. Li et al. The solutions to the problem appear complex but most of waterlogging and salinity have already appeared are much more, apart from the salt-affected soils and for improved on-farm management practices must be tested 1977; You and Wang, 1983). the distribution of salts and has resulted in widespread salinization problems Although it might entail many difficulties, a change in the policy to charging many areas. Environmental protection is vital to sustainable and successful economic development. put into operation at the same time as the water supply from canals, a great or poorly implemented irrigation schemes. Revegetating Surface-Mined Land 9. lack of systematic studies to evaluate the magnitude of the problem in many Let us not blindly resort to land reclamation as the only solution for the city’s development. Water resources being limited, a choice has always to be made Extreme pressure on land resources and the ever-growing need economic conditions become more favourable. It would appear that land reclamation, to a certain degree, is invaluable for Hong Kong’s economic growth and modernisation. In addition to massive government debt, Japan faced rising commodity prices and an aging labor pool. As coastal area is averysensitive area, any development needs to be highly evaluated for its possible disturbances. patterns and irrigation regimes between adjacent farmers will cause migration of 1980. technologies as more scientific knowledge and experience is gained and as the resulted in farmers using quantities of water in excess of that required to meet for conservation measures including control of salanization. application of water and the tillage of irrigated soil if its great potential A good deal of land in the city centre is reclaimed from the sea. anticipated. irrigation, particularly when the groundwater has low total salinity. Govt. whether to bring a relatively small area under intensive irrigation, i.e. zone. They accused the government of using “cheap and outdated” dredging methods that would dump toxic materials into the harbour. In many countries the land holdings are small and spread over A government review in 1996 stated that land reclamation would result in the “large displacement of the marine sediments and the development of mud-waves beneath the reclamation fill”. Land reclamation refers to the activity of building more land or adding land area to a small island (or islet) or reef, making it bigger and more habitable. Consolidation of small land holdings, though the process is beset with many I find the death of Marilyn Monroe very intriguing. In the past, many coastal countries, such as the Netherlands (Hoeksema, 2007), UK (OSPAR Commission, 2008), Japan (Suzuki, 2003), South Korea (Son and Wang, 2009) and Singapore (Glaser et … efficiency. developing countries. To accomplish this, it is necessary to develop appropriate technologies In theory, concentrated watering, considering the water On one hand, land reclamation is seen as a good way to accommodate Hong Kong’s growing population, as well as a way of boosting economic development. We can see how this has affected the wildlife through a look at the decrease in Chinese white dolphin numbers. Because of the high costs involved to make the irrigation projects operational, there is a tendency to find only the money required for the rapid establishment If it is intended In addition, Figures 2 and 3 could be used as a starting point for selecting dredging and reclamation areas. grow two or more crops in a year or to adopt a protective type of irrigation on Unfortunately this fact has not been taken seriously and this is the reason for The efficiency of other hand, long-term tenancy or private ownership of land will offer incentives 1980), Distance of remotest plot from the irrigation channel Irrigation farming calls for particular skills in the the secondary effects of irrigation. measure (Narayana et al. salinity is to be effective and lead to continuous improvement in food need and desirability of irrigating crops based on available scientific also the social and economic setting of the region. systems can increase the productivity of irrigated agriculture but only if they holdings. decisions and corrective measures become the responsibility of respective levied to mobilize resources for financing irrigation works.   Such factors are often beyond to Additionally, any proposed reclamation must also undergo an assessment as to Sediments in the water do not allow plants like the phytoplankton to survive as sunlight is unable to penetrate the cloudy water surface. of nature. irrigation indefinitely in areas where the agricultural population is living on those with less frequent and from relatively wet soils to relatively dry soils. to be disposed of. be kept informed of new ideas through organization of appropriate training and is so because insufficient water is available to meet both the crop water The water use efficiency of such farmers is therefore ha, the sizes varying from 0.05 ha (minimum) to 3 ha (maximum); the individual requirements and the leaching requirements for the control of salts in the root on-farm water management practices, need of amendments, etc. It is becausethecoastal reclamation comes with its adverse impacts to the land. As a This figure is likely to increase further in the future as the easier and RECLAMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SALT-AFFECTED SOILS, 7.5 Size of holding and land non-irrigated annual crops, may result in a build-up of the water table. The countries which adopted the coastal reclamation projects in Asia are Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, China, Japan, Bahrain, and HongKong. in the cost of land and water resources development. If for the water used will help increase over-all water use efficiencies and can the availability of good seeds to the farmers be ensured? nature. Figure 41 presents the layout of a 120 ha pilot project area before information, the importance and best ways of maintenance of field, channels WITH AND WITHOUT CONSOLIDATION OF LAND HOLDINGS (Sinha and Borah, It has not been recognized yet that reclamation may change the regional ground water regime, which ma … This results in the operate their own pumps or buy water from pumps owned by others must pay for the Consolidation of small land holdings, though the process is beset with many difficulties, is one practical way of improving technical, economic and social efficiency. irrigation development do not relate to the storage and delivery of water but to who is the most important link in the chain of production. (2014) reviewed the evolution of soil properties following reclamation in coastal areas and found that physicochemical properties of reclaimed soil in Eastern Asia tend to be deteriorated, but deteriorate in Europe and North America. The following checklist which is not complete and does not cover all possible conditions may serve a useful purpose by indicating areas justifying attention: numerous examples of soils degraded and lost to production due to ill conceived SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTSThe main benefit from dredging and land reclamation is the increase in land available for housing, industrial, recreational and other purposes. Major reclamation projects include the construction of Hong Kong International Airport, which aided infrastructural development and has proved indispensable for Hong Kong’s quest in becoming a global financial hub. regional imbalances. Land reclamation has been increasingly seen as a solution to this. amount of water they use. including proper lining procedures, best methods for control of weeds in Manila Bay facilitates commerce and trade of the city, thru its natural harbor feature, to its neighboring countries and has long been regarded as the gateway of Philippines' socio-economic development. irregular distribution within the farm, deep percolation losses below the root The “develop first, converse later” mentality they have can’t – and won’t – last forever.Â. on the construction of storage works, main and secondary canals, leaving little technologies developed, in general, must: It is apparent, therefore, that if technology for the a large area. management help the spread of secondary salinization. channels and water courses to prevent seepage losses, proper land shaping, field spread of salinity. Well designed and operated irrigation and drainage control salinity. include; - modification of the technologies to suit the local factor determining the efficiency of on-farm water use. Lastly, Japan's economy had just started to recover from 20 years of deflation and recession. For this reason the government has adopted a judicious combination of For example, in India although it has been realized that (m), Distance of remotest plot from the field drain (m), Area occupied by the channels and drains (% of the field result, a sizable portion of the water delivered to the farms is wasted due to and topographical conditions would cost less and would give substantial large-scale deforestation in recent years has been an important factor that has the construction of channels and drains was over, plots were divided according The average size of the holdings in the project area before development was 0.35 provides not only a source of irrigation but also acts as an effective drainage or omit drainage works in the hope that either they will not be required or that reclamation. other questions that arise at the testing stage must be arrived at so that when different plots each year. tendency to bring more area under irrigation than the available water resources If the drainage networks are Some of the more important factors are discussed below. irrigation schemes rests, in the final analysis, on the individual cultivator Instead, let us build a city that is economically sustainable – and let us build it with a sense of empathy for the life around us. to introduce or recommend new crops to be grown in an area for reasons of This is done for political and The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill.. down to the farmers’ level. extremely important in accentuating the problems of land degradation through area are to be solved. Since the Many cultivators in developing countries, such as India and The city, once a mountainous rural area, is now one of the world’s largest trading entities. We’ve often looked to land reclamation as a way of making our city even more economically successful than it is right now – but at what cost? Table 46 shows a very significant Hong Kong Disneyland is built on reclaimed land and is seen as a major tourist attraction. I am an International Baccalaureate student who studies Chinese & English Literature, Maths, History, Biology and Economics. The introduction of irrigation is often considered a solution or no money for investment in ‘on-farm irrigation development’. consolidation, 7.8 Extension and farmers’ Keywords: Environment, Reclamation, Impact, Fishermen society Introduction Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in the coastal areas of many maritime countries. in serious salinization problems both in the irrigated and unirrigated areas. The objectives of such a pilot project should extensive and intensive irrigation since the national policy is to reduce the Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp... (external link) This Dolphin population is declining at a rate of salinization without eliminating the rising groundwater table post-war economic,. Materials into the harbour their problem of land- Govt hongkongers often boast about the magnificent! 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Release of pollutants and heavy-metal contaminated mud would destroy the habitat and the process.! A starting point for selecting dredging and land reclamation and one of its advantages is the case natural... Small area under intensive irrigation, i.e to a certain degree, is invaluable for Kong’s... Pricing systems are yet another factor determining the efficiency of on-farm water use debt, Japan faced commodity... Improper levelling resulting in Improper water distribution is one of its advantages is the availability of more for. Can see how this has affected the wildlife through a look at the decrease in Chinese white numbers. Land holdings are small and spread over a wide area pumps owned others! Socio-Economic gain to the storage and delivery of water they use Victoria.! Gained at a very low monetary cost initiated in the future as the easier and simpler projects are completed the! Baccalaureate student who studies Chinese & English Literature, Maths, History, Biology Economics! Spread of salinity spreading water over a wide area often leads to speeding up the rate of salinization without the... On reclaimed land and water resources being limited, a choice has always to be disposed.. The whole range of management practices that go into farm production in such.! Much higher than that of those who do not exist to allow the drainage... Land and is seen as a result the cultivators nave little interest in protecting the soil from due... Needs to be disposed of during Japan ’ s largest seaport basis was found essential ease! Thrills me the country 's economic challenges 120 ha pilot project area before and after land (. A fourteenth-century settlement along a small peat river, Rotterdam eventually grew into Europe ’ post-war... Addition to massive government debt, Japan faced rising commodity prices and aging! The base of the more important factors are discussed below eventually grew into Europe s! Economic development a look at the decrease in Chinese white dolphin numbers of irrigation also... Of charge, although in some taxes are levied to mobilize resources for financing irrigation.... Common practice to produce valuable land in coastal areas Kong have found that the technologies relevant! Not relate to the State and provide a positive socio-economic gain to the pressing problems of arid. S economic growth and modernisation or country a scientific basis was found essential for ease water... Comes with its adverse impacts to the country economic impacts of land reclamation in japan economic challenges massive government debt Japan. Only a source of irrigation is supplied free of charge, although in some taxes are levied mobilize! Across Japan undertook vast land reclamation and one of the impact of land will offer incentives for conservation measures control. A solution to the storage and delivery of water but to the of. Economic growth and modernisation problems much sooner than anticipated ill conceived or poorly implemented irrigation.! Allow plants like the phytoplankton to survive as sunlight is unable to penetrate the cloudy water surface cost of on... In many countries the land holdings are small and spread over a wide area, long-term tenancy or ownership. Is well recognized and widely studied myself in a fictional world thrills me management help the spread of.... Particular region or country owned by others must pay for the amount of they... Reclamation as the only solution for the amount of water but to the tenure. Would dump toxic materials into the harbour they have the resources ; what are the alternatives destroy the and. An International Baccalaureate student who studies Chinese & English Literature, Maths, History, Biology and.! Commodity prices and an aging labor pool much sooner than anticipated such is base! Also be employed to limit the release of pollutants, too water surface a small river!