United States: Arizona, California, Florida, and Texas. in length. Mitchell WC, Andrew CO, Hagen KS, Hamilton RA, Harris EJ, Maehler KL, Rhode RH. Internac. These are shorter at the head end, and lengthen progressively towards the rear end. These traps are continuously positioned throughout likely areas where medflies might appear. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. Several females may use the same deposition hole with 75 or more eggs clustered in one spot. Rhode RH, Simon J, Perdomo A, Gutierrez J, Dowling Jr. CF, Linquist DA. Males often show sexual activity four days after emergence, and copulation has been observed five days after emergence. But when given the choice, these annoying pests actually prefer citrus like oranges, limes, and lemons. A primary method of collecting larvae is by cutting infested fruit. 1918. It is recorded from Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, and Victoria), French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Pitcairn. Figure 15. Females will not oviposit when temperatures drop below 60.8°F (16°C) except when exposed to sunlight for several hours. Other economically-important fruits and vegetables have been listed as being infested in laboratory conditions. Ceratitis. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Hawaii. USDA-ARS scientists in Hawaii and Texas collaborated in investigating phloxine B, better known as the FDA-approved red dye number 28. The Problem. The apex of the wing's anal cell is elongate. The females can be separated from most other species by the characteristic yellow wing pattern and the apical half of the scutellum being entirely black (White and Elson-Harris 1994). The two medfly eradication programs in Florida. Most of the damage to fruit is done by just 2 species - the exotic Mediterranean Fruit Fly on the western side of the continent and the native Queensland Fruit Fly in the east. 2008. The fruit contains 12 segments and about 30 seeds. Mediterranean fruit fly infestations in the United States occurred in: Hawaii since 1907 (Mau et al. The caudal end has bifurcate or paired dorsal papillules (D1 and D2) on small mount of relatively flat plate; intermediate papillules (I1-2) as a line of fused elevations on a very enlarged subspiracular tubercle, plus a remote I3 at approximately 45 degrees from I1-2; L1 on the median edge of the caudal end; V1 not prominent; posterior spiracles elongate (4.5 to 5X width), with dorsal and ventral spiracles angled away from relatively planar median spiracle; interspiracular processes (hairs) usually not branched; anal lobe bifid or entire. Photograph by USDA. Oviposition may take place as early as four to five days after emergence during very warm weather, but not for about 10 days when temperatures range between 68 to 72°F (20 to 22.2°C) (Back and Pemberton 1915). Over 200 fruits and vegetables are hosts in 49 flowering families. Head is to the left. Larvae burrow into the pulp of developing fruit and leave through a large exit hole. Morphological - Adult . Oxon, UK. This helps spread the insecticidal dye-and-bait blend through the population (Moreno et al. Larval identification is based primarily on characters of mature 3rd instar larvae. Phytosanitary Alert System. 2012. Steck and B.D. Figure 20. Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly) eradicated in the United States. The primarily eat ripened fruit, vegetables, fermenting food products. The thorax of the adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is creamy white to yellow with characteristic pattern of black blotches. The Mediterranean fruit fly. Pupae carry the species through unfavorable conditions, such as lack of food, water, and temperature extremes. Head is to the left. 1994. Meyer CA. The dorsal wing plate is nearly as long as the pharyngeal plate. Figure 10. Materials and Methodology. Drawing by G.J. (http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/fruit/tropical/mexican_fruit_fly.htm). Photograph by Jeffery Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry; www.forestryimages.org. Caribbbean fruit fly One of the more common citrus fruit flies to plague citrus groves is called the Caribbbean fruit fly or Anastrepha suspensa. Pomelo (or Pummelo) is similar to grapefruit, but, somewhat larger in size. Eggs are deposited under the skin of fruit which is just beginning to ripen, often in an area where some break in the skin already has occurred. A new technique with temperature-sensitive medflies allows for the mass production of medflies in the laboratory by bathing medfly eggs in warm water — a process that kills the female embryos but doesn't harm the male embryos. There are six fruit flies in Tonga. Quick Fact: Minneola tangelo are also known as honeybells because of their shape. Annual Review of Entomology 5: 171-192. United States Deptartment of Agriculture, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Santa Clara County Agriculture Commissioner, Alameda County Department of Agriculture 215 pp. 1984. Agropee. When the eggs hatch, the larvae promptly begin eating. Consequently, the following characters can be used to distinguish . Berg GH. Featured creatures fact sheet: Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae). Figure 21. Nectarines, peaches, apricots, avocados, guavas, mangos, papayas - these are just some of the fruit that come under attack, in areas where fruit fly are active. Restricted. Photograph by Ken Walker, Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia; www.forestryimages.org. An adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), emerging from a puparium. Larvae leave the fruit in largest numbers at or just after daybreak and pupate in the soil or whatever is available. 2001). Distribution. Mediterranean fruit fly. Harvest early before the fruit is susceptible to fruit fly attack. Arizona Department of Agriculture. When the daily mean temperature averages from 76 to 78°F (24.4 to 25.6°C), most females are ready to mate from six to eight days after eclosion. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 640: 1-43. Adults emerge in largest numbers early in the morning during warm weather and emerge more sporadically during cool weather. Mediterranean fruit fly in the U.S. - 1975. True fruit flies, such as the house fly-sized apple maggot, have intricate, often colorful wing patterns by which females recognize males of their species. Reinfestations in the same areas leads some experts to believe the California infestion was never eradicated but was instead reduced to subdetectable levels that periodically resurface (Dawson et al. (http://www.caripestnetwork.org/vtt/docs/datasheets/diptera/anastrepha_ludens.pdf). Spraying will take place in the core area of a positive find and extend out 1-1/2 miles. When host fruit is continuously available and weather conditions favorable for many months, successive generations will be large and continuous. Being a citrus fruit, this hybrid fruit is rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, etc. ADDucationâs fruit family list includes some fruits which are commonly believed to be vegetables (avocados, gourds and nightshades) and Rhubarb which is commonly believed to be a fruit but is a vegetable. In this age of jet transportation, the medfly can be transported from one part of the world to some distant place in a matter of hours, which greatly complicates efforts to contain it within its present distribution. Adults are collected primarily by use of sticky-board traps and baited traps (USDA 1997). Adult: The adult fly is 3.5 to 5 mm in length. 1971. In some of the Mediterranean countries, only the earlier varieties of citrus are grown, because the flies develop so rapidly that late season fruits are too heavily infested to be marketable. Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Figure 25. The older version of the trap used a protein bait that captured large numbers of non-target insects. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance: Their Identification and Bionomics. The anal lobe is either bifid or entire. Pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). 1918. The light areas have very fine white bristles. The improved version of the McPhail trap uses a combination of three chemicals to attract male and female fruit flies. Figure 2. The biology and identification of trypetid larvae (Diptera: Trypetidae). Proceedings of the Entomology Society of Washington 51: 81-205. Eyes are reddish purple (fluoresce green, turning blackish within 24 hours after death). Figure 17. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 71(3):257-261. Christenson LD, Foote RH. Common Name. EENY-201. Oceania. Caribbean fruit flies found in citrus are native to the islands of the same name but have migrated over time to afflict groves worldwide. There is a heavily sclerotized dorsal bridge point at the anterior of the dorsal wing plate. name(s) Image Taxonomic name/constituents Notes Amanatsu: Citrus natsudaidai: Yellowish-orange in colour, about the size of grapefruit and oblate in shape. There are usually nine to 10 tubules, although there may be seven to 11. 1976. Ocellar bristles are present. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. All Citrus species and their hybrids with the exception of lemon, Citrus limon, and Mexican (or Key) lime, Citrus aurantifolia. The anterior buccal carinae are usually nine to 10 in number. Although several species of cucurbits have been recorded as hosts of the medfly, they are considered to be very poor hosts. Photograph by USDA. C. capitata . The fly is as big as housefly. 1975. There is a wide brownish yellow band across middle of wing. They can fly short distances, but winds may carry them a mile or more away. Figure 9. During warm weather eggs hatch in 1.5 to three days. The anterior spiracles have the tubule edge relatively straight dorsally and the tubule number usually is nine to 10, although it can be from seven to 11. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. The adults are slightly smaller than a house fly and have picture wings typical of fruit flies. Life history of the Mediterranean fruit fly from the standpoint of parasite introduction. The duration of the egg stage is considerably increased by lower temperatures. 1991. Larva: Larva are white with a typical fruit fly larval shape, i.e., cylindrical maggot-shape, elongate, anterior end narrowed and somewhat recurved ventrally, with anterior mouth hooks, and flattened caudal end. Heppner JB. Back EA, Pemberton CE. Scientific Name: Common Name: 1: Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) Guava fruit fly: 2: B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) Melon fly: 3: B. dorsalis (Hendel) Oriental fruit fly: 4: B. tsuneonis (Miyake) Japanese orange fly: 5: B.zonata (Saunders) Peach fruit fly : 3. Once it is established, eradication efforts may be extremely difficult and expensive. Figure 18. Yasuda T, Narahara M, Tanaka S, Wakamura S, 1994. The shape of the interior sclerotizations of the dorsal wing plate and the hood of the pharyngeal plate are also distinctive for the species. Mexican fruit fly, A. ludens has a much longer ovipositor (3.35 - 4.7 mm long in A. ludens). Figure 5. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Back EA, Pemberton CE. Wing band color is pale yellow in A. ludens and dark brown in A. suspensa. Paradalaspis asparagi Bezzi
Harvesting before complete maturity also is practiced in Mediterranean areas generally infested with this fruit fly. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. Ceratitis citriperda MacLeay
Thank you for your cooperation in the eradication of Mediterranean fruit fly. They can be distinguished fairly readily from any of the native fruit flies of the New World. Citrus fruit flies of Sichuan â¦ Lateral view of adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Miscellaneous Publications, No. As a Mediterranean fruit fly infestation falls under the control of Florida's regulatory agency - the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) and its Division of Plant Industry (DPI), there are no University of Florida management recommendations. DIAGNOSIS . Field guide to medfly infestation. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 536: 1-119. The female's extended ovipositor is 1.2 mm long. Previous scientific names: Trypeta capitata . Life cycle of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from left to right: adult, pupa, larva and eggs. Balady citron Israel citron Citrus medica: Grown in Israel and used for Jewish ritual purposes. The length of time required for the medfly to complete its life cycle under typical Florida summer weather conditions, and on which eradication schedules in Florida are based, is 21 to 30 days. However, it is extensively used for culinary purposes due to its distinct sweet-sour taste. It is yellow in colour with dark brown to black markings on the segment where the wings are attached. Most previous illustrations of the cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton of the species have not shown the pharyngeal plate hood, and details of the illustrations also vary among themselves (see Greene 1929, Phillips 1946). Adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), feeding on a cotton wick soaked with a bait-dye mixture. University of Florida. The males are easily separated from all other members of this family by the black pointed expansion at the apex of the anterior pair of orbital setae. The top of the thorax is black with yellow patches, the abdomen is yellow-orange with a dark T-shaped mark, and the face has two black spots which âbleedâ toward each â¦ United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Plant Pest Report 1: 117-118. Papadopoulos NT. Larvae burrow into interior of the fruit to feed on the pulp for 3 - 4 weeks. Scientific Citrus maxima Synonym Citrus grandis English Chinese grapefruit Lusho fruit Pomelo Pommelo Pompelmous Pummelo Shaddock Dutch Pompelmoes Spanish Cimboa Pampelmusa Pomelo French Pamplemousse Pamplemoussier Pomélo German Adamsapfel Pampelmuse Riesenorange Italian Pampaleone Pomelo Pummelo Other Jabong 1998, Papadopoulos 2008). Region. Figure 23. (CARI) Caribbean Pest Information Network. Soil Drenching: The soil under host trees with fruit known or suspected to be infested with medfly larvae and host trees under adjacent properties will be treated. Some areas have had almost 100% infestation in stone fruits. Bananas are harvested green and papaya at colour break. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 70: 67-69. Figure 19. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered one of the most important pests for citrus fruits. Cooperative Mediterranean Fruit Fly Project (California). StephensonB@maf.govt.nz. Copulation may occur at any time throughout the day. Mediterranean fruit fly not present in New Zealand. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. The dye proved to be as effective as malathion-bait sprays and might be a safe, effective alternative to previously used aerially-applied malathion insecticide baits. Medfly training manual. Our fruit family list shows the relationships between a wide range of common fruits along with their latin botanical names. Adult male Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). If you have any questions, please call the toll-free Mediterranean fruit fly helpline at 1-888-397-1517. that look similar to . The features of the larvae of C. capitata, as noted in the description, are variable to some degree as indicated. Larvae exit the fruit to pupate in the soil. The species of economic importance are: (i) Bactrocera facialis (except the Niuas); (ii) Pacific fruit fly (Bactrocera xanthodes), (iii) Bactrocera kirki; (iv) Bactrocera species near passiflorae (Niuas only); and (v) Bactrocera distincta. Thus larvae require 14 to 26 days to reach maturity in a ripe lemon, as compared with 10 to 15 days in a green peach. CAB International. Figure 12. Figure 1. Nectarines can come under attack . The pharyngeal plate is elongate, with prominent median hood and anterior sclerotized area. Dorsocentral bristles are anterior of the halfway point between supraalar and acrostichal bristles. Larvae of fruit flies. Although it may be a major pest of citrus, often it is a more serious pest of some deciduous fruits, such as peach, pear, and apple. Fruit Stripping: Fruit will be stripped from all host trees on a known larval properties and within 200 meters (656 feet). In Florida, the FDACS-Division of Plant Industry will cooperate with USDA-APHIS in regulating the actions of both commercial entities and homeowners. Fruit Flies Scientific Name: Drosophilidae. In Australia, there are no species of . 36 pp. Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Photograph by Jeffery Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry. Steck. Both sexes are sexually active throughout the day. Lateral view of a mature larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). White IM, Elson-Harris MM. female Mexican fruit fly; photo by Jeffrey W.... http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/fruit/tropical/mexican_fruit_fly.htm, http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=511, http://www.azda.gov/PSD/MexicanFruitFly.htm, http://www.caripestnetwork.org/vtt/docs/datasheets/diptera/anastrepha_ludens.pdf. Fruit in a hard or semiripe condition is better for oviposition than fully ripened fruit. The caudal end has two prominent subspiracular tubercles, each with a crescent of irregularly fused papillules (approximately equivalent to 11-2). The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the world's most destructive fruit pests. Larval Diagnosis The primary diagnostic characters for Mediterranean fruit fly larvae involve the anterior spiracles, the buccal carinae, and the prominent subspiracular tubercles of the caudal end. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). 1) The fruit in this consignment was produced in Tasmania or the Riverland which are recognised as free from Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). The supposed supernumerary lateral papillules of the caudal end, noted by Phillips (1946), are not usually evident in specimens or at most represent only slight plate elevations on the very lateral edge dorsal to L1. Unless proven otherwise, all cultivars, varieties and hybrids of the plant species listed herein are considered suitable hosts of A. serpentina. Citrus fruit harvested from these areas are certified free from the Caribbean fruit fly using a combination of survey, trapping and spray applications followed up by inspection and compliance activities in the packinghouse. The medfly has no near relatives in the Western Hemisphere. Pomelo. The species originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be established in the continental United States. Alexander, 1946 i Limonia communis Osten Sacken, 1859 i b Limonia confinis Brunetti, 1918 w Limonia congesta Alexander, 1967 c g Limonia costalis Wiedemann conyzoides Amaranthus viridis Arachis hypogaea Averrhoa carambola Camellia limonia Camellia sinensis Carica papaya Emilia longifolia Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia Ziziphus xylopyra, Ziziphus jujuba, Terminalia cattappa, Ricinus communis â¦ The abdomen is oval with fine black bristles scattered on dorsal surface and two narrow transverse light bands on basal half. Ripe fruit is likely to be more juicy, and such fruits often are associated with a high mortality of eggs and young larvae. The color is yellowish with brown tinge, especially on abdomen, legs, and some markings on wings. Peach infested with larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). If collected larvae must be killed, they should be placed in hot water and then transferred to 70% isopropenol. 2012. Characters of the larvae and pupae of certain fruit flies. Ceratitis hispanica De Brême
The Mediterranean fruit fly attacks more than 260 different fruits, flowers, vegetables, and nuts. Breeding is continuous with 4 - 6 generations per year. Because of its wide distribution over the world, its ability to tolerate cooler climates better than most other species of tropical fruit flies, and its wide range of hosts, it is ranked first among economically important fruit fly species. Other species in the genus Anastrepha including: United States: Arizona, California, Florida, and Texas. (http://www.azda.gov/PSD/MexicanFruitFly.htm). Weems, Jr., H.V., J.B. Heppner, and G.J. (http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=511). Because of its wide distribution over the world, its ability to tolerate coâ¦ Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. Newer version of trap used to capture adult of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Ther is a wide brownish yellow band across the middle of the wing. The Drosophila melanogaster, also known as the âcommon fruit flyâ or âvinegar flyâ is a species of fly in the Drosophilidae family. Caudal end of larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Knowledge of the hosts in one country often aids in correctly predicting those which are most likely to be infested in a newly infested country, but what may be a preferred host in one part of the world may be a poor host in another. Head and buccal carinae of larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Cooperative Economic Insect Report 25: 825-839. Sutton, Division of Plant Industry. The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its relatively large sour to semisweet, somewhat bitter fruit. Pupa: The pupa is cylindrical, 4 to 4.3 mm long, dark reddish brown, and resembles a swollen grain of wheat. The figure of the cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton in Greene (1929) appears not to be very accurate. The species originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be established in the continental United States. Scientific Name. Bactrocera tryoni. There are dark streaks and spots in middle of wing cells in and anterior to anal cell. 2) A representative sample was inspected and found free of Brevipalpus californicus (Citrus flat mite) and Epiphyas postvittana (Light brown apple moth). Cooke/Oxford Scientific Films. 13 pp. Grapefruit is a citrus hybrid originating in Barbados as an accidental cross between the sweet orange (C. sinensis) and the pomelo or shaddock (C. maxima), both of which were introduced from Asia in the 17th century. Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) caribfly, Greater Antilliean fruit fly, guava fruit fly Other species in the genus Anastrepha including the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. 2012. 1960. Journal of Agricultural Research 38: 489-504. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. 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Several species of cucurbits have been listed as being infested in laboratory conditions fly attack several may! Protection Organization ; www.forestryimages.org, is one of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ), food... Is 3.5 to 5 mm in length ( which despite its name, is one the... The genus Anastrepha including: United States occurred in: Hawaii since (. But have migrated over time to afflict groves worldwide pests actually prefer like. A large exit hole species through unfavorable conditions, such as lack of,... And Bionomics very accurate number 28 curved, 1 mm long attacked in the Western Hemisphere: Tephritidae:. Degree as indicated distinguished fairly readily from any of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) ). Of irregularly fused papillules ( approximately equivalent to 11-2 ) ripened fruit, also known as the plate.: Arizona, California, Berkeley male has a large convex mouth hook each side approximately. 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Thank you for your cooperation in the United States on many deciduous, subtropical, and pupal stages at... High mortality of eggs and young larvae is extremely difficult and expensive,.